Even as a child, I was fascinated with science, and it was ultimately the concept of using science and technology to help people that drew me to medicine. Today, I’m more excited and optimistic than ever about our ability as clinicians to provide best-in-class treatment to the patients we have the privilege to care for – particularly in a minimally invasive way.
While every effort is made for nonsurgical intervention, neurosurgery can often be the answer to saving or improving a child’s life. At CHOC, we are committed to creating a personalized treatment plan for each child, based on his or her needs.
When surgery is necessary, we strive to perform minimally invasive surgery whenever possible for the myriad benefits it brings our patients. Minimally invasive neurosurgery offers a smaller incision, less pain, minimal blood loss, shorter time spent in the operating room, shorter recovery time, shorter hospital stays and hidden scarring.
There are a number of tools that we use to make surgery less invasive. For example, we can use a small camera, called an endoscope, to look inside the brain without having to make a large incision. In some surgeries, we can use a specialized robot, called a ROSA robot, to allow for precise placement of catheters or electrodes, and to operate on tiny areas of the brain.
Here are four surgeries I’m excited about as a pediatric neurosurgeon. In each surgery, the child is asleep and does not feel any pain during surgery.
- Endoscopic surgery — This option for many types of brain surgery allows the neurosurgeon to identify and treat conditions deep within the brain. A tube-like instrument with a camera is inserted into the brain through a small incision in the skull. In some cases, we can insert the tube through the nose and avoid making any incisions in the skull. This allows the neurosurgeon to have a clear picture of the tumor. Then, we use specialized surgical instruments to remove the tumor or damaged area. When possible, we use this technique for brain tumors, hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, craniosynostosis and skull base surgery. In treating craniosynostosis, endoscopic surgery can replace larger and more invasive surgeries but still achieve excellent outcomes.
- Responsive neurostimulation (RNS therapy) —The RNS system is similar to a heart pacemaker. By monitoring brain waves, it can detect seizure activity and then the system can respond to stop the seizure. What simultaneously amazes me and comforts families about this piece of technology is that patients can’t feel the device once it’s programmed. They don’t feel pain or anything unusual. Studies show RNS therapy reduces seizures and improves quality of life for most people who have used it.
- Deep brain stimulation – This surgical treatment can offer lasting relief for many children who experience abnormal movements. CHOC offers DBS surgery for children with movement disorders of all degrees, including very complex cases. We are one of the only centers in the world to use a multiple stage approach that allows us to better target the correct areas of the brain, without the need to wake a child during surgery. DBS surgery at CHOC involves the placement of electrodes in the brain and wires that connect to a stimulator device implanted in the chest. The device is like a pacemaker; it sends impulses to the electrodes that tell the brain to stop or minimize uncontrolled movements throughout the body. Our specialized team places up to 12 electrodes, when needed, to target different areas of the brain to attain a good outcome. Surgeries take place in a state-of-the-art operating room at CHOC, which includes the latest navigation system for safer, more precise procedures and the ROSA 3D-mapping robotic system that aids surgeons in locating the exact areas to operate.
- Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT) – Also known as laser ablation, this emerging technology provides pediatric patients with epilepsy and other conditions a range of benefits more traditional procedures can’t match and offers a potential solution for brain tumors that are hard to reach with traditional surgery. Instead of doing a craniotomy where a large incision is made to open up the skull, the neurosurgeon first makes a small hole in the skull just a few millimeters in a diameter. Then, under MRI visualization, the neurosurgeon can precisely position the laser probe and deliver heat to the specific area, which destroys the abnormal tissue. Laser ablation is especially useful in patients with tumors or seizure-generating abnormalities deep within the brain. Precision is essential in implanting the catheter, which guides the laser, since it allows the neurosurgeons to limit the thermal energy delivered to the tumor area only. Most LITT is minimally invasive and requires a short time in the operating room, and patients are often able to go home the next day.
Throughout my career, I’ve been fortunate to see firsthand how neurosurgery has advanced tremendously over the years, particularly through research and innovation.
I’ve had the privilege of studying and providing care at a number of institutions – Harvard, the National Institutes of Health, the University of Pennsylvania, Boston Children’s Hospital, and Children’s National Hospital (Washington, DC) — before coming to CHOC. At each of these institutions, it’s evident that through innovative technology and minimally invasive surgery, we as neurosurgeons can alleviate suffering and have a significant impact on the lives of children.
As a team here at CHOC, we always ask ourselves, “What is the best thing we can do for each child in the least invasive method, with the least amount of pain?” and then we try to do it in the most compassionate way possible.
It’s an exciting time in medicine, in part thanks to advances in technology — especially the pieces of technology that allow us to provide these minimally invasive surgical options that make a true impact on children and their families.
For more information about the CHOC Neuroscience Institute, click here.
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